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陕西教师招聘备考资料:英语定语从句用法归纳

http://sx.hteacher.net 2022-02-19 12:02 陕西教师招聘 [您的教师考试网]

定语从句由关系代词who、whom、whose、which、what、as和关系副词where、when、why等引导,但须记住:

1.what不能引导定语从句.

2.关系词的分析须考虑它在定语从句中的成分。

一.指人的关系代词有who、whose、whom、that. 试分析:

The old man who/whom /that we visited yesterday is a famous artist.

Miss Wang is taking care of the child whose parents have gone to Beijing .

The man with whom my father shook hands just now is our headmaster.(=The man who/whom that my father shook hands with just now is our headmaster.)注:

A. 指人时有时只用who不宜用that。

1.先行词为one、ones或anyone

(1)The comrade I want to learn from is the one who studies hard and works hard.

(2)Anyone who breaks the law should be punished.

2.先行词为these时

These who are going to Beijing are the best students of our school.3.在there be 开头的句子中

There is a student who wants to see you.

4.一个句子中带有两个定语从句,其中一个定语从句的关系代词是that,另一个宜用who,以免重复。

The student that won the first prize is the monitor who works hards.5.在非限制性定语从句中

A。I met a friend of mine in the street, who had just come from Japan.

B.主句以who开头的句子中,只用that,不用who。

二.指物的关系代词有which、whose(=of which)、that. 试分析:

1. I like the books which / that were written by Lu Xun.

2. The desks (which/that) we made last year were very good.

3. This is the house in which we lived last year. (= This is the

house which /that we lived in last year.)

4. I live in the room whose windows face south. (= I live in the room ,the windows of which face south.)

注:

A. 介词如果位于作为其宾语的关系代词之前时,只能用whom、 which不能用who或that.

(1). The girl about whom they were talking is our monitor.

(2). The book in which there are many interesting things was written by Li Ming.

B. 部分短语动词中的介词不可与动词拆开,在定语从句中其介词不可前置,只能放在其动词之后。

Is this the book which she is looking for?

The old man who/whom they are waiting for is Professor Li.

The child who/whom she is looking after is Wang Ping’s son.

C. 指物时,下列情况下只能用that ,不宜用which。

(1)先行词为不定代词,如All、much、anything、everything、nothing、something、none、the one等。

We are willing to do anything that is good to the people.

I have told them all (that) I know.

All that can be done has been done.

(2)先行词是序数词或被序数词、修饰时。

The first book that I read last night was an English novel.

(3)先行词是形容词最高级或被最高级修饰时。

This is one of the most interesting films that I have ever seen.

This is the best that can be done now.

(4)如果有两个或两个以上分别表示人和物的先行词时(先行词既有人又有物),定语从句的关系代词用which和who都不合适,只能用that。

We know nothing about the doctors and the hospitals that you are talking about.

There are sheep and men that can be seen on the hill.

(5)如果先行词被the only、the very、the last、the same、any、 few 、little、no、 all 、one of、 just修饰时。

This is the only book that can be lent to you. 

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